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Termites are far less likely to be attacked by fleas than bees, wasps and ants, since they are generally well protected in their own mounds.122 Nevertheless, termites are infected by many different parasites. A few of them include dipteran flies,123 Pyemotes mites, and also a large number of nematode parasites. Many nematode parasites are in the order Rhabditida; many others are in the genus Mermis, Diplogaster aerivora and Harteria gallinarum.
M. anispliae is known to weaken the termite immune system. Infection with A. nomius only takes place when a colony is under great anxiety. .
Termites are infected by viruses including Entomopoxvirinae and the Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus.130131
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Foraging behaviour depends on the form of termite. By way of instance, certain species feed on the timber constructions they inhabit, and others harvest food that is near the nest.132 Most workers are seldom found out in the open, and do not forage unprotected; they rely on sheeting and runways to protect them from predators.
When they find a food source, they communicate to other soldiers and a small force of employees starts to emerge. In the second phase, employees appear in large numbers at the website. The third stage is marked by a decrease in the number of soldiers present and an increase in the number of employees.136 Isolated researchers may engage in Lvy flight behavior within an optimised way for finding their nestmates or foraging for food.137.
Competition between two colonies consistently ends in agonistic behavior towards each other, resulting in fights. These struggles can cause mortality on both sides and, in some situations, the gain or reduction of territory.138139"Cemetery pits" may be present, in which the bodies of dead termites are buried.140
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Studies show that when termites encounter each other in foraging areas, a few of the termites deliberately block passages to prevent other termites from entering.134141 Dead termites from different colonies found in exploratory tunnels contributes to the isolation of the region and thus the need to construct new tunnels.142 Conflict between two competitors does not always occur.
Since C. formosanus colonies can get into physical conflict, a few termites squeeze tightly into foraging tunnels and die, effectively blocking the tunnel and ending all of agonistic actions.144.
Among the reproductive caste, neotenic queens may compete with one another to be the dominant queen when there are no primary reproductives. This battle among the queens leads to the elimination of all but a single queen, which, with all the king, accepts over the colony.145
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Ants and termites may compete with each other for nesting space. In particular, ants that prey on termites usually have a negative effect on arboreal nesting species.146
Most termites are blind, so communication primarily occurs through chemical, mechanical and pheromonal cues.41134 These means of communication are employed in a variety of activities, including foraging, locating reproductives, construction of nests, recognition of nestmates, nuptial flight, and site web locating and fighting enemies, and defending the nests.41134 The most common way of communicating is via antennation.134 A number of pheromones are known, including contact pheromones (that are transmitted when workers are engaged in trophallaxis or grooming) and alarm, trail and sex pheromones.
Trail pheromones are secreted from the sternal gland, and gender pheromones derive from two glandular sources: the sternal and tergal glands.41 When termites go out to look for meals, they forage in columns along the ground throughout vegetation. A trail can be identified by the faecal residue or runways that are covered by items.
When termites construct their neststhey use predominantly indirect communication. No single termite would be in charge of any particular construction project. Individual termites react rather than think, but at a group level, they exhibit a type of collective cognition. Specific structures or other objects like pellets of soil or pillars cause termites to begin building.
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The result is a self-organised procedure where the information that directs redirected here termite activity results in changes in the environment rather than from direct contact among individuals.134.
Termites can distinguish nestmates and non-nestmates through chemical communication and gut symbionts: compounds consisting of hydrocarbons discharged from the cuticle permit the recognition of alien termite species.148149 Every colony has its own distinct odour. This odour is Due to genetic and environmental factors such as the termites' diet andThe composition of the bacteria within the termites' intestines.150.
Termites rely on alarm communication to defend a colony.134 Alarm pheromones can be discharged when the nest has been broken or is being attacked by enemies or potential pathogens. Termites always avoid nestmates infected with Metarhizium anisopliae spores, through vibrational signals released by infected nestmates.151 Additional methods of defence include intense jerking find more and secretion of fluids from the frontal gland and defecating faeces containing alarm pheromones.134152.